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Taxonomic Information on Cultivated Plants in GRIN-Global


The GRIN-Global taxonomists are especially grateful for the ongoing support and technical expertise of the USDA-ARS National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, GRIN Database Management Unit, in particular Edward M. Bird, Jimmie D. Mowder, Quinn P. Sinnott, John A. Belt, Gorm P. Emberland, John Chung, Mark A. Bohning, Allan K. Stoner, Laura Gu, Kurt Endress, and Karen Kittell. Our ongoing dialog with many of the National Plant Germplasm System crop curators and their liason with the Crop Germplasm Committees has been very useful to us. In addition to the author, several individuals, over the years, have directly contributed in various ways to GRIN-Global taxonomic data, including Steven R. Hill, Blanca León, William E. Rice, Edward E. Terrell, Carole A. Ritchie, Tufail Ahmed, Vickie M. Binstock, James I. Cohen, Sasha N. Irvin, Peter C. Garvey, Michael Jeffe, Matthew Smith, and Jennifer Friedman. In the former USDA-ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, the collaboration and cooperation of fellow botanist Joseph H. Kirkbride, Jr. (now retired from the U.S. National Arboretum) has always been appreciated and the adminstrative support of Amy Y. Rossman and technical assistance of David F. Farr and Erin B. McCray have been invaluable.

Development of the web interface to GRIN-Global taxonomy was initiated by the late Edward M. Bird and Vickie M. Binstock and has progressed through work by the author, with the technical assistance of James S. Plaskowitz, Quinn P. Sinnott, and David F. Farr and the design work of James S. Plaskowitz. Translations of several web pages have been possible due to the efforts of Christian Feuillet (French), Courtney V. Conrad (German), José R. Hernández (Spanish), and Joseph H. Kirkbride, Jr. and Blanca León (Portuguese and Spanish). We are grateful for all these contributions.

Finally, it is impossible to acknowledge here all of the numerous individuals whose valuable communications have greatly enriched GRIN-Global taxonomy. Nevertheless, a number of regular correspondents have greatly assisted us in improving the quality and accuracy of GRIN-Global taxonomy data by routinely informing us of errors in or necessary additions to GRIN-Global data, directing our attention to items requiring further documentation, and/or providing feedback on GRIN-Global taxonomy web pages. Among these are Folmer Arnklit (Botanic Garden, University of Copenhagen), Franklin S. Axelrod (University of Puerto Rico), Ken Becker (CAB International), James A. Duke (GreenPharmacy.com), Kanchi N. Gandhi (IPNI, Harvard University Herbaria), John R. Hosking (DPI, New South Wales, Australia), Kirsten A. Llamas (Tropical Flowering Tree Society), James L. Reveal (Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University), Mark W. Skinner (USDA-NRCS), and Thomas L. Wendt (University of Texas at Austin). We are equally grateful to those individuals who have been frequent consultants for complex nomenclatural questions, including Kanchi N. Gandhi (IPNI, Harvard University Herbaria), Werner Greuter (Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem), Joseph H. Kirkbride, Jr. (U.S. National Arboretum), John McNeill (Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh), and Dan H. Nicolson (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.).

NGP National GeneBank of Pakistan Distribution Policy

Plant germplasm is distributed to scientists, educators, producers and other bona fide research and education entities from Pakistan’s National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) active collection sites. The NPGS Curator and/or Research Leader will, in accordance with current NPGS policies and procedures, determine the legitimacy of a request when necessary..

Distributions to fulfill requests for repatriation of subsamples of germplasm collections to a country or community of origin, especially following natural or man-made catastrophes, are considered a high priority.

Although distributions for research, education, and repatriation are of the highest priority, the NPGS also encourages various seed-saver organizations and public gardens to conduct germplasm conservation activities that engage many individuals and groups throughout the country. Elements of the NPGS cooperate with seed-saver organizations and public gardens and may store germplasm for and distribute germplasm to such organizations.

Distribution of germplasm from NPGS collections to fulfill requests from individuals seeking free germplasm strictly for home use is generally considered an inappropriate use of limited resources and conflicts with Pakistan Government policy of not competing with commercial enterprises. Requestors can be asked, in an appropriate manner, to justify the use of specific NPGS germplasm instead of suitable commercially available germplasm.

Accessions listed in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database as “not available” due to insufficient or low viability seed and/or scheduled for regeneration will generally not be available for distribution.

Other accessions are listed in GRIN as “not available” because they are not a part of the NPGS collection per se, but are conserved in NPGS genebanks to meet specific needs as described later in the section entitled “Categories of Germplasm Distributed and Availability.” In this category are certain accessions of improved germplasm that are only available from the owner/developer. Other accessions require that specific conditions be met by the requestor before distribution is possible.

NPGS sites will not distribute germplasm internationally when they cannot comply with the importation or quarantine requirements of the recipient country unless the requestor can provide a valid waiver of such requirements.