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Taxonomic Information on Cultivated Plants in GRIN-Global

Basis of GRIN-Global Taxonomic Decisions

National Germplasm Resources Laboratory National Germplasm Resources Laboratory botanists are responsible for maintaining the taxonomic and nomenclatural integrity of the scientific names in GRIN-Global. NGRL maintains an active collection of monographic and floristic literature from throughout the world to assist our activities. Through ongoing research into current taxonomic literature, consultations with taxonomic botanists, and systematic reviews of GRIN scientific names for various plant families, the most recent taxonomy and nomenclature are incorporated into GRIN-Global. For major crop genera, GRIN-Global taxonomic work may often involve interaction with other USDA scientists for those crops and their Crop Germplasm Committees (CGC).

The taxonomic and nomenclatural decisions accepted in GRIN-Global are based on various considerations. GRIN-Global family taxonomy is based, with a few more recent exceptions, on the APG-IV classification (Chase et al., 2016). Taxonomic decisions at lesser ranks ideally reflect the views of recognized taxonomic specialists for various plant groups as determined from published literature, such as monographs, revisions, or contributed treatments to floras, or from direct consultation for review of GRIN-Global taxonomic information. Evidence from molecular phylogenetic studies, which is particularly relevant to decisions regarding generic taxonomy but seldom affects species-level decisions, is also taken into account. Evaluating any proposed changes from such studies in relation to existing GRIN-Global generic taxonomy, while nonetheless challenging, is guided by an assessment of the range of evidence presented, including the completeness of sampling, and the extent to which recognized specialists are participants in the underlying research or have embraced its conclusions. When a specialist opinion or specialist-generated literature is lacking, taxonomic decisions, particularly at species level, are based on the floristic literature. Floras are generally assigned greater weight than checklists, and modern floras are given greater consideration than older ones in preparing the GRIN treatment.

Other considerations being equal, when there are differences in taxonomic treatment or nomenclatural disputes, the GRIN-Global treatment would generally be guided by current usage, with some evaluation of the effect of a change to our users and to the internal consistency of our treatment. In serving the agricultural scientists of NPGS, it is especially necessary to consider usage among agronomists and horticulturalists in addition to that of taxonomists. A requirement, however, is that all nomenclature adhere to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature (McNeill et al., 2012).

Nomenclatural problems or discrepancies that appear and are unresolved in the literature often require that original references be consulted. Species records now have a protologue link field that we are using to add links to publicly available digitized works, such as those available through the Biodiversity Heritage Library. In addition, the location of the NGRL on the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, about 24 km northeast of Washington, D.C., also facilitates this work by providing access to several excellent libraries for historical and current botanical literature, including the National Agricultural Library (NAL), Library of Congress (LC), Smithsonian Institution (SI), and University of Maryland. The wealth of online botanical resources has now become indispensable for this purpose, especially those resources made available through the Biodiversity Heritage Library, the Digital Library del Real Jardín Botánico, the Gallica Digital Library, and Google Books.

NGP National GeneBank of Pakistan Distribution Policy

Plant germplasm is distributed to scientists, educators, producers and other bona fide research and education entities from Pakistan’s National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) active collection sites. The NPGS Curator and/or Research Leader will, in accordance with current NPGS policies and procedures, determine the legitimacy of a request when necessary..

Distributions to fulfill requests for repatriation of subsamples of germplasm collections to a country or community of origin, especially following natural or man-made catastrophes, are considered a high priority.

Although distributions for research, education, and repatriation are of the highest priority, the NPGS also encourages various seed-saver organizations and public gardens to conduct germplasm conservation activities that engage many individuals and groups throughout the country. Elements of the NPGS cooperate with seed-saver organizations and public gardens and may store germplasm for and distribute germplasm to such organizations.

Distribution of germplasm from NPGS collections to fulfill requests from individuals seeking free germplasm strictly for home use is generally considered an inappropriate use of limited resources and conflicts with Pakistan Government policy of not competing with commercial enterprises. Requestors can be asked, in an appropriate manner, to justify the use of specific NPGS germplasm instead of suitable commercially available germplasm.

Accessions listed in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database as “not available” due to insufficient or low viability seed and/or scheduled for regeneration will generally not be available for distribution.

Other accessions are listed in GRIN as “not available” because they are not a part of the NPGS collection per se, but are conserved in NPGS genebanks to meet specific needs as described later in the section entitled “Categories of Germplasm Distributed and Availability.” In this category are certain accessions of improved germplasm that are only available from the owner/developer. Other accessions require that specific conditions be met by the requestor before distribution is possible.

NPGS sites will not distribute germplasm internationally when they cannot comply with the importation or quarantine requirements of the recipient country unless the requestor can provide a valid waiver of such requirements.