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Taxonomic Information on Cultivated Plants in GRIN-Global




Geographical Distribution

Currently, 543,920 distribution records exist in GRIN-Global for the 59,147 taxa for which distributional data are provided. Each record is a linkage between a continent, country, or state occurrence and an accepted taxon name. Country designations follow standards of the U.S. Government as implemented in GRIN-Global. GRIN-Global distribution records are grouped into areas and regions in accordance with the standard publication World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions (Brummitt, 2001), which divides the terrestrial world into nine areas: Africa, Antarctic, Asia-Temperate, Asia-Tropical, Australasia, Europe, Northern America, Pacific, and Southern America.

Distributions are given as reported in the literature or by consulted specialists. Native or potentially native distributions are recorded and displayed separately from cultivated, adventive, or naturalized distributions. For weedy species this distinction is sometimes obscure, and some widespread taxa may have their entire distributions summarized as a comment. State distributions for some larger countries are provided when these are available, although sometimes these are not itemized for taxa widespread within those countries. However, a distributional report for a taxon in a geographical or political region does not necessarily imply widespread occurrence in that region, but only indicates that a literature citation or other basis exists for that report. When available, more specificity in GRIN-Global distributional reports is given as comments, but the available information may vary greatly from one taxon or region to another. Among regions, the greatest gaps in information exist mainly for tropical regions.

For species with subspecies or varieties in GRIN-Global, the main entry for the species provides the overall distribution, including distributions for any subspecies or varieties not appearing in GRIN-Global. Autonym entries provide distributions of only the typical subspecies or variety which occupies all or only a portion of the total distribution for the species.



NGP National GeneBank of Pakistan Distribution Policy

Plant germplasm is distributed to scientists, educators, producers and other bona fide research and education entities from Pakistan’s National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) active collection sites. The NPGS Curator and/or Research Leader will, in accordance with current NPGS policies and procedures, determine the legitimacy of a request when necessary..

Distributions to fulfill requests for repatriation of subsamples of germplasm collections to a country or community of origin, especially following natural or man-made catastrophes, are considered a high priority.

Although distributions for research, education, and repatriation are of the highest priority, the NPGS also encourages various seed-saver organizations and public gardens to conduct germplasm conservation activities that engage many individuals and groups throughout the country. Elements of the NPGS cooperate with seed-saver organizations and public gardens and may store germplasm for and distribute germplasm to such organizations.

Distribution of germplasm from NPGS collections to fulfill requests from individuals seeking free germplasm strictly for home use is generally considered an inappropriate use of limited resources and conflicts with Pakistan Government policy of not competing with commercial enterprises. Requestors can be asked, in an appropriate manner, to justify the use of specific NPGS germplasm instead of suitable commercially available germplasm.

Accessions listed in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database as “not available” due to insufficient or low viability seed and/or scheduled for regeneration will generally not be available for distribution.

Other accessions are listed in GRIN as “not available” because they are not a part of the NPGS collection per se, but are conserved in NPGS genebanks to meet specific needs as described later in the section entitled “Categories of Germplasm Distributed and Availability.” In this category are certain accessions of improved germplasm that are only available from the owner/developer. Other accessions require that specific conditions be met by the requestor before distribution is possible.

NPGS sites will not distribute germplasm internationally when they cannot comply with the importation or quarantine requirements of the recipient country unless the requestor can provide a valid waiver of such requirements.