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Taxonomic Information on Cultivated Plants in GRIN-Global

History of GRIN-Global Taxonomy

GRIN-Global taxonomic data were originally extracted from the Nomenclature File of the former Plant Exploration and Taxonomy Laboratory (PETL). The origin of the Nomenclature File and its relationship to the former Plant Introduction Office (PIO) since 1898 were described at the First International Symposium on Cultivated Plants (Terrell, 1986a). The purpose of the File from the beginning was to provide correct scientific names for the plants introduced into the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS).

Many germplasm introductions were received by exchange with foreign institutions, and others were collected throughout the world by American plant explorers. All the introductions accessioned through the PIO were assigned consecutive Plant Inventory (PI) numbers and distributed to the appropriate specialist or germplasm site. Other introductions went directly to germplasm stations and many were later processed by the PIO.

For each accession, a determination of the correct taxonomic nomenclature was made by taxonomists maintaining the Nomenclature File. While most scientific names in the File were the result of plant introductions, many names, mainly of economic plants, were added by USDA taxonomists for other reasons. Prior to GRIN-2, the version of GRIN initiated at the time of the First Symposium, the PIO accession data and PETL nomenclature data were in separate card files. The transfer of the Nomenclature File to GRIN-2 was completed in 1987, thus making this taxonomy directly accessible to the entire NPGS community.

Since the assimilation of the Nomenclature File into GRIN, GRIN-Global taxonomic data have continued to expand in response to the needs of NPGS, the Agricultural Research Service, and other agricultural agencies. An extensive publication on world economic plants was completed from GRIN data in 1999, with a second revision in 2013, thereby further extended the coverage of GRIN taxonomic data to all plants in international commerce. This publication, entitled World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference, may be obtained from CRC Press. Data from this publication may be queried on the internet here as well.

From a previous gopher server, the online interface for GRIN taxonomic data was developed and implemented in 1994, enabling users from around the world to access this information easily and efficiently. GRIN-Global taxonomic data can thus be queried by scientific name (family, genus, or species), common name, economic use, or geographical distribution. Specialized searches on GRIN-Global data relating to economic plants, crop wild relatives, rare plants, noxious weeds, families and genera, or seed associations are also possible. Since GRIN-Global taxonomic data have been available online, usage has grown at a nearly exponential rate. Currently over 40,000 reports per day from GRIN-Global taxonomic data are output to users and search engines from around the world as a result of these queries.

NGP National GeneBank of Pakistan Distribution Policy

Plant germplasm is distributed to scientists, educators, producers and other bona fide research and education entities from Pakistan’s National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) active collection sites. The NPGS Curator and/or Research Leader will, in accordance with current NPGS policies and procedures, determine the legitimacy of a request when necessary..

Distributions to fulfill requests for repatriation of subsamples of germplasm collections to a country or community of origin, especially following natural or man-made catastrophes, are considered a high priority.

Although distributions for research, education, and repatriation are of the highest priority, the NPGS also encourages various seed-saver organizations and public gardens to conduct germplasm conservation activities that engage many individuals and groups throughout the country. Elements of the NPGS cooperate with seed-saver organizations and public gardens and may store germplasm for and distribute germplasm to such organizations.

Distribution of germplasm from NPGS collections to fulfill requests from individuals seeking free germplasm strictly for home use is generally considered an inappropriate use of limited resources and conflicts with Pakistan Government policy of not competing with commercial enterprises. Requestors can be asked, in an appropriate manner, to justify the use of specific NPGS germplasm instead of suitable commercially available germplasm.

Accessions listed in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database as “not available” due to insufficient or low viability seed and/or scheduled for regeneration will generally not be available for distribution.

Other accessions are listed in GRIN as “not available” because they are not a part of the NPGS collection per se, but are conserved in NPGS genebanks to meet specific needs as described later in the section entitled “Categories of Germplasm Distributed and Availability.” In this category are certain accessions of improved germplasm that are only available from the owner/developer. Other accessions require that specific conditions be met by the requestor before distribution is possible.

NPGS sites will not distribute germplasm internationally when they cannot comply with the importation or quarantine requirements of the recipient country unless the requestor can provide a valid waiver of such requirements.